Molecular Biology


Click the image numbers below to view the photographs:

Molecular Biology

Image Caption
SC1000 Close up of Transgenic plant callus Nicotiana tabacum growing in nutrient agar.
SC1001 Ultra violet visualisation of size fractionated DNA.
SC1002 Synechocystis 6803 colony, growth difference caused by introduction of gene wild type. Photo courtesy of Dr Steve Mayes
SC1003 Protoplasts isolated from the tobacco plant Nicotiana tabacum, these are suitable for the study of molecular architecture in plant cells.
SC1004 MDCK or Canine Kidney Epithelial Cells were derived from a kidney of an apparently normal adult female cocker spaniel in September 1958 by S. H. Madin and N. B. Darby. The MDCK cell line has been serially passaged since then and has become an invaluable research tool.
SC1005 Germline transformation of Anopheles stephensi mosquitos, a vector of human malaria, by using the Minos transposable element from Drosophila hydei marked with an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) as selectable marker.
The availability of the gene transfer technology developed in Professor Andrea Crisanti laboratory offers a powerful tool to investigate the role of mosquito molecules involved in parasite-host cell interactions and opens a wide range of applications to explore the genome of these important disease vectors. copyright WHO/TDR/Stammers.
SC1006 Using a transposon based transformation technique this Anopheles stephensi adult has been genetically manipulated to express enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP). The transgenes have been stably integrated into the genome which produces a strong fluorescence in nerve tissue especially the photoreceptor cells of the eyes.
SC1007 Genetically modified mosquito larvae showing strong fluorescence of their nervous system. Marker genes which express enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) have been integrated into the mosquitos genome.
SC1008 Head of an adult mosquito Anopheles stephensi which has been genetically manipulated in order to express a fluorescent marker. Expression in the photoreceptors of the eyes allows the signal to be seen in animals which do not have a transparent cuticle.
SC1009 LIVE Plasmodium berghei taken from mosquito midgut showing 3 fully developed ookinetes and 2 unfertilised female gametes. All are genetically modifed to express Green Fluorescence Protein, and photographed using a fluorescence microscope and GFP filter settings. P. berghei belongs to a group of four Plasmodium species that infect murine rodents from Central Africa. These species are P. vinckei, P.chabaudi, P. yoelii and P. berghei. Females are spherical and transform to elongated ookinete stages within 20hours after fertilisation. The bright areas in the centre of the ookinetes are the remains of digested haemazoin pigment granules from when the females were developing inside their host's red blood cells. The ookinetes travel through the gut wall of their mosquito hosts and form cysts on the outside, which then produce the parasite stages that can infect new hosts.


Image Caption
SC2000 Researcher working with white light laser.
SC2001 Fibre optic connectors  
SC2002 Transgenic tobacco plant with Dr R. Hayes.

Dr Michael Chew using a STEM microscope.


Image Caption
Anopheles stephensi, photographed at the London School.
Heligosomoides polygyrus, male and female worms.
Anopheles stephensi, photographed at the London School.
Aedes aegypti.
Fasciola hepatica, dark field.
Rhodnius prolixus, a triatomine bug, feeding on human blood.
Trypanosoma brucei, tryptomastigote stage in thin blood film.
Echinococcus granulosus hydatid cysts in Horse liver.
Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) blood feeding on human host.
Cimex lectularius The Bedbug, blood feeding on human host.
Ornithodorous moubata or the African Tampan, a soft tick engorged with blood after inflicting a painful bite on a human host.
Echinococcus granulosus protoscolex containing calcareous corpuscles and rostellar hooks. Phase contrast photomicrograph magn.x250
Schistosoma haematobium adult male enclosing female as found in mesenteric vein. magn.x10
Schistosoma haematobium cercarial stage magn.x500
Schistosoma haematobium miracidium swimming freely. Flash photomicrograph using differential interference contrast at sensitive grey setting. Length approximately 50 micrometres,sample courtesy Dr Alison Agnew.
Schistosoma haematobium spined egg capsule is deposited by female worm in mesenteric venule, some will escape to exterior of host through the colon or bladder, others become trapped in deeper viscera causing inflammation and fibrosis.
Aedes albopictus (Skuse) blood feeding on human skin
Trypanosoma cruzi monaxenic culture Differential Interference Contrast x2500 cause of sleeping sickness.
Dog Roundworm or Toxascaris leonina embryo L2 larva within egg. Differential Interference Contrast low magnification, egg diameter 80x67 micrometres.
African Black Fly or Simulium damnosum blood feeding on a human host at Daboese, Ghana. The tarsal claws on the first pair of legs are upturned, possibly this helps to avoid alerting the human host to its presence. Human infection by the nematode Onchocerca volvulus is caused by the transmission of the nematode through the intermediate host Simulium damnosum, the resulting human disease is called African River Blindness or Onchocerciasis.
Black Fly Simulium damnosum the main vectors of Onchocerciasis. This is caused by the nematode Onchocerca volvulus which is ingested when the fly takes a blood meal from a human host. Various stages of microfilariae develop within the fly until the L3 larval stage migrates to the head and mouth for future infection of the next human host.
Simulium damnosum pupae from Boti Falls, Ghana
Anopheles stephensi
Eggs of Toxascaris leonina or Dog Roundworm
"The Malaria mosquito" Anopheles gambiae is the main vector of malaria in Africa especially Plasmodium falciparum.This parasitic disease infects from 300 to 500 million persons per year in the world, and kills more than a million and a half each year, mainly African children.
Anopheles gambiae taking a blood meal, mosquitos are nectar feeders but before laying eggs the female requires iron and protein from blood.The mouthparts are a pair of needle like tubes, and with each bite, one tube sends anti-coagulants and other chemicals into the hosts bloodstream so that blood flows freely into her stomach
Trichuris trichiura from the human caecum

Anopheles stephensi taking a human blood meal, Ashworth laboratories, Edinburgh

Anopheles stephensi Ashworth laboratories, Edinburgh
The mosquito Anopheles stephensi lives in urban areas and the larvae are found in a wide variety of artifical containers, cisterns, wells, tubs and fountains. In the wild they are found in stream pools, stream margins, seepages, irrigation channels and springs. Females avidly bite man.


Image Caption
SC4000 Thin section of bronchiole from the human lung.
SC4001 A beautiful pseudostratified urinary epithelium (also named transitional epithelium) in a transversal paraffin section of rabbit ureter stained with a conventional hematoxylin-eosin method.
SC4002 Light photomicrograph of thin section of a pollen grain
SC4003 Thin section of human lung showing alveolar tissue.
SC4004 Columnar epithelial cells from human trachea, showing brush bordered cilia and goblet cells.
SC4005 Transverse thin section of longbow from the Mary Rose.
SC4006 Thin section of fish retina Rutilus rutilus showing rods and cones.
SC4007 Mitosis in garlic root tip cells.



 Micromacro home published work email Sinclair Stammers crystals fossils natural history landscapes people