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SC3020: Black Fly Simulium damnosum the main vectors of Onchocerciasis. This is caused by the nematode Onchocerca volvulus which is ingested when the fly takes a blood meal from a human host. Various stages of microfilariae develop within the fly until the L3 larval stage migrates to the head and mouth for future infection of the next human host.
   
 
   
   
     
 

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